WOWD (a deliberate word play on “crowd”) works in a different way to the other search engines, and focuses on identifying new trends, news, and popular topics and pages on the Internet. Users download the WOWD browser application, and then every web page they visit is automatically nominated for inclusion on the search engine’s results page. This is a little like Digg and similar sites in which people vote for their favorite pages, except that WOWD does the voting automatically.Mark Drummond, CEO of Wowd Inc., told the summit attendees that people do not have time to look for what’s hot on the Net, and need a fresh alternative to the reference-style search engines of the last decade, which he claims are not good discovery tools. WOWD aims to present dynamically updated results as an alternative to sites such as Google, whose results are slow to change. Drummond expects WOWD to attract users who are interested in what is popular, and who see search facilities as an additional feature.The founder of WOWD, Boris Agapiev, said that WOWD transfers control from impersonal data centers to individuals. Unlike previous search engines, WOWD does not use web crawlers or other conventional page ranking mechanisms, but instead taps into a ” distributed cloud architecture”, in which users who have downloaded the software become, in effect, both the web crawler and data storage center to build up the search index. The more often users visit a page, the higher the page is ranked. The WOWD home page has three tabs: Hot List, Search, and My Pages. The Hot List is available to everyone and results by Popularity. The list can also be ranked by Freshness, but this (like many other features) is only available once you have downloaded the free browser application. Results are constantly updated, allowing you to see at a glance which sites are being most often visited by people who have downloaded the application.Downloading the free application releases features such as a recommendation search engine and the option of searching through the user’s own search history. The software also enables WOWD to store of bits of the search index on the user’s computer. Each piece of information is stored on several computers so it remains available even when the user’s computer is shut down. The algorithm used in this peer-to-peer system is called “Kademlia”, which is used in peer-to-peer file sharing systems.Privacy is protected because the site does not index pages protected by encrypted protocols, and because users actually access and index web pages they visit through another person’s computer, which protects against the collection of cookies or password protected information.According to Drummond, since the advent of real-time applications such as Twitter and Facebook people are more interested in real-time, fresh information than in the sometimes dated results of traditional search engines, and WOWD aims to satisfy this growing preference. WOWD also has economic advantages for the company: using each user as a data storage center means the system could be infinitely large, since there is no need for expensive infrastructure such as massive data storage centers, since the cloud of users essentially form the search engine. The users also share the cost of the utility charges, but at an additional cost of a few dollars a year, are unlikely to notice.The WOWD browser application is available for the Mac, Windows, and Linux.© 2009 PhysOrg.com Explore further Search engine branding to be examined by researcher This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only. (PhysOrg.com) — The beta version of WOWD, the Internet’s newest search engine, was launched last week at the 2009 Web 2.0 Summit in San Francisco. It aims to differentiate itself from other search engines such as Google and Yahoo by identifying the most popular sites in real-time and by becoming, in effect, the Skype for search. Citation: WOWD, the real-time search engine (2009, October 26) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2009-10-wowd-real-time.html WOWD logo.
(Phys.org)—A team of researchers from Italy, Uruguay and Spain has found via lab study that common brewer’s yeast not only mate in the guts of wasps, but interbreed with other yeast species, producing hybrids. In their paper published in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, the group describes their study and results and why they believe their findings could have implications for both environmentalists and manufactures of yeast based products. This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only. Journal information: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences More information: “Social wasps are a Saccharomyces mating nest,” PNAS, www.pnas.org/cgi/doi/10.1073/pnas.1516453113 These findings, the team notes, could have serious implications for not just wine growers or bread makers, but for environmentalists as well. Here they suggest is evidence of a fundamental part of the ecological cycle that was not known to exist. They wonder if other insects might be playing a similar role for other yeast or fungus types, such as bees or ants. They plan to continue the work to find out. Crabro wasp looking outside from a wasp’s nest in a tree. The image suggests how crabro wasps could transport yeasts from different environments, harboring yeast species isolated from tree bark, such as Saccharomyces paradoxus and some Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and strains from species mainly found in wine, grape berries, and wineries, such as Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Credit: Carlotta De Filippo Researchers find wasps are the key to yeast’s ability to survive through winter Explore further Brewer’s yeast, a type of fungus, is used to make alcoholic beverages and bread—its use has been the focus of study for thousands of years, yet, as the researchers with this new effort note, little is known about it outside of the laboratory. To learn more, they started with the findings four years ago by another team—that brewer’s yeast lives inside the guts of wasps while the wasps hibernate. They collected five different strains of the yeast and put them on grapes which were fed to wasps and then turned down the heat, causing the wasps to hibernate. After two months the researchers found that approximately one third of the yeast population had mated with yeast of a different species. After four months that number went up to 90 percent, proving , they claim, that yeast not only mate in wasp guts, but also interbreed.Taking the experiment a step further, the researchers found that the interbred strains tended to be more hardy inside the wasp gut then those that were not—over time, the pure breeds actually died off. This, the researchers claim, proves that wasp gut reproduction is a major driver of yeast diversity in nature. And , they add, that suggests that yeast are dependent on interaction with insects for evolutionary development. © 2016 Phys.org Citation: Study shows brewer’s yeast hybridizes in wasp gut (2016, January 19) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2016-01-brewer-yeast-hybridizes-wasp-gut.html The wasp and the grape: a worker hornet (Vespa crabro) feeding on a grape in a Tuscan vineyard in October. The image shows how Vespa crabro can break and eat grape berries, moving S.cerevisiae yeasts and other microorganisms. Credit: Stefano Turillazzi
As technology improves, scientists often find themselves faced with addressing overlooked classification issues—scientific naming is no exception. As researchers develop new methods of bringing back extinct species or improving old techniques, the resultant organisms are very nearly copies of their extinct ancestors. Currently, there are three main resurrection methods. The first is back breeding, in which a species is bred over time to resemble a bygone species. Another is cloning, in which ancient reproductive material is placed in the uterus of a living close relative. Finally, there is genomic engineering, in which information that is missing from samples of a target species is filled in using DNA from a close modern relative. None of the techniques result in creation of a creature that is an exact copy of the original species, and that is at least partly why the authors suggest adding a tag to their names.The authors give examples of how the new tag could be used, changing Mammuthus columbi to Mammuthus recr. columbi, for example. In some cases, if the new species is not a close copy of the original, the group suggests that a new species name be given, such as Mammuthus recr. Americanus.The idea of changing the name of resurrected species is not new. The International Union for Conservation of Nature published guidelines three years ago offering possible ways to classify resurrected species. The authors with the new effort suggest a more standardized format. They suggest that not only will it make things less confusing for scientists, it will help environmentalists develop specific guidelines for preventing the species from going extinct again.If the international community agrees with the suggestion and governing bodies move forward with the idea, there are still likely to be some issues that will be difficult to resolve. For instance, researchers want to determine how much extinct DNA in a living animal’s genome qualifies for tagging. Also, some may not agree with the tag chosen because, as some in the field have already pointed out, current resurrections are not actually copies of ancient species—they are hybrids. Citation: Group suggests adding tag to resurrected extinct animal names (2017, June 9) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2017-06-group-adding-tag-resurrected-extinct.html (Phys.org)—A group of scientists from several institutions in Germany has suggested that extinct animals that are resurrected through scientific means be given a tag on their name to indicate their origins. In a Policy Forum piece in the journal Science, the group suggests adding the tag “recr” to scientific names given to resurrected creatures to make sure they are not confused with the original. More information: De-extinction, nomenclature, and the law Science 09 Jun 2017: Vol. 356, Issue 6342, pp. 1016-1017 DOI: 10.1126/science.aal4012 , http://science.sciencemag.org/content/356/6342/1016SummaryThe concept of de-extinction, aimed at restoration of extinct species, is controversial (1). Improvements in de-extinction techniques (back-breeding, cloning, and genomic engineering) now provide the opportunity to attempt to resurrect extinct species (2, 3). Up to 25 extinct animal species have been proposed as candidates for de-extinction (4) on the basis of their high public profiles, availability of well-preserved DNA, existence of closely related species who may serve as host or surrogate parents, and availability of suitable habitat in the case of planned reintroductions (1). From a legal point of view, it will be crucial to clarify how de-extinct species will be classified, in particular, in relation to their potential conservation status under national and international law. We discuss implications for conservation laws, which largely depend on nomenclature, and laws regarding the release of genetically engineered species, which do not, and argue for unique naming of de-extinct species. Journal information: Science A mammoth task—how do we decide which species to resurrect? Explore further © 2017 Phys.org The Columbian mammoth (Mammuthus columbi). Credit: Wikipedia. This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only.
Bollywood superstar Salman Khan has completed five years on micro-blogging site Twitter.With more than 11 million followers, the 49-year-old may be a little behind with the numbers when compared to the other two Khans – Shah Rukh and Aamir, who have over 12 million followers, but has always kept fans updated by interacting with them on regular basis.“5 yrs on twitter! Thx to arbaaz,” Salman tweeted on Monday. The Dabangg Khan completed five years on Monday. He was trending on Twitter by the keywords #5YearsOfSalmanOnTwitter.Salman, who made his Bollywood debut with 1988 film Biwi Ho To Aisi, also shares a fan following of more than 20 million on Facebook. The actor will next be seen in Kabir Khan’s Bajrangi Bhaijaan, in which he will star opposite Kareena Kapoor Khan.
Miffed at the “interference” of sports ministry in its affairs, Indian Olympic Association on Monday told the visiting International Olympic Committee president Thomas Bach to convey to the Prime Minister Narendra Modi its opposition to the Sports Code of the government in its current form.Bach, visiting the country for the first time since being elected as IOC chief in 2013, had a meeting with top IOA members at a city hotel that lasted an hour. The IOC chief also had an hour-long meeting with sports minister Sarbananda Sonowal at the same hotel. Sonowal was assisted by sports secretary Ajit Sharan and Sports Authority of India director general Injeti Srinivas. Also Read – Khel Ratna for Deepa and Bajrang, Arjuna for JadejaFormer IOA secretary general and IOC member Randhir Singh also attended both the meeting. Later, Sonowal hosted a lunch for the visiting dignitary which was attended by top IOA and sports ministry officials and minister of state information and broadcasting Rajyavardhan Singh Rathore. Abhay Singh Chautala, who served as president of the IOA during the 14-month suspension from the IOC, told reporters after the meeting the members have told Bach to convey to the PM that they would oppose the Sports Bill as it “interferes” with the autonomy of the IOA.“For some time, there has been this issue of the implementation of the Sports Bill. The earlier Congress government had tried to implement this Sports Bill and the current BJP government is also saying that it will implement the Bill,” said Chautala, an INLD MLA in Haryana. Also Read – Endeavour is to facilitate smooth transition: Shastri“There has been interference in the affairs of IOA from the sports ministry which is undermining the autonomy of the IOA under the Olympic Charter. This will harm Indian sports,” Chautala, now a Haryana Olympic Association official, said. IOA’s objection to the Sports Code centers around two major issues, age limit of 70 of the office bearers of the IOA and the cutting into size the importance of the state units of the IOA.
Kolkata: A week after the Ferrari accident at Pakuria in Howrah on National Highway 6, police conducted special drives on national highways to check “recreational speed driving” of premium cars on Sunday morning.A large section of premium car owners go out for “recreational speed driving” on Sunday mornings on the stretches of national highways, which are mainly straight and pass through thinly populated areas.But the police have now started taking necessary steps to check the same after the accident of the Ferrari car on June 3, in which a businessman from the city, Shibaji Roy, was killed and a 21-year-old woman was critically injured. Also Read – Heavy rain hits traffic, flightsA senior police officer said that the policemen carried out a special drive with an intention to check such activities on the national highways and at the same time, to create awareness among people.The police maintained a strict vigil on the stretches of national highways which are straight and pass through less populated areas.It may be mentioned that speed metres are installed at different places along national highways. Using the same, the police identified cars plying at a high speed, violating the traffic norms. A car can ply at a maximum speed of 120 km per hour on highways. Also Read – Speeding Jaguar crashes into Merc, 2 B’deshi bystanders killedAt the same time, the police carried out awareness campaign so that people who often travel on highways, do not violate traffic norms.It may be mentioned that Chief Minister Mamata Banerjee had launched a state-wide awareness drive, Safe Drive Save Life, to check road accidents and it also helped in bringing down the rate of accidents in the state.Now, the special drive is going to curb the problem on national highways as well, said a police officer.This comes at the time when there are around 35 such people in Kolkata who own super expensive cars. Each of the cars cost between Rs 2 crore to Rs 4 crore.But according to experts, there are apprehensions of a decline in sale of such cars at least for the time being, with the accident that claimed a life last week. 13 such cars were sold in Kolkata in 2017.
Kolkata: The Microbiology department of West Bengal State University played a significant role in a new study conducted by National Brain Research Centre (NBRC), where it has identified proteins which facilitate the entry of Japanese Encephalitis (JE) virus inside brain cells.The study points out that JE, a leading form of viral encephalitis is caused by mosquito-borne JE virus, which belongs to the same genus as dengue and yellow fever.The research team of NBRC has identified two brain cell proteins — PLVAP (Plasmalemma vesicle-associated protein) and GKN3 (Gastrokine3) that facilitate the entry of the virus into brain cells. It may be mentioned that JE infection occurs when viral attachment proteins interact with cellular membrane proteins of host cells.”There were around six such proteins that were under consideration on part of the research team. However, analysis of these proteins would have been time consuming and an expensive affair. In this context, NBRC research group collaborated with our research team,” said Sibani Chakraborty of WBSU’s Micro biology department.She further said the department’s bioinformatics section identified two brain cell proteins — PLVAP and GKN3 those are present on neuronal cell surface. “These findings helped in identifying their role in the viral entry into the neurons,” added Chakraborty.The experimental work performed by NBRC has been carried out in laboratory mice.The identification of host proteins, important for viral entry into neurons, provided the researcher team with candidates, whose targeting may be useful to block viral infection thus reducingdisease severity.Researchers have found that reducing PLVAP receptor in neurons decreased JEV entry and upregulating (increasing) them increased the viral entry on the other hand. “We are planning to collaborate with some pharmaceutical companies to identify potential drug/drugs which may be able to block this receptor proteins,” Chakraborty maintained.The research team included Dr Anirban Basu, Sriparna Mukherjee, Nabonita Sengupta, Irshad Akbar, Noopur Singh of NRBC Manesar, Ankur Chaudhuri and Sibani Chakraborty of WBSU and Arindam Bhattacharyya of Calcutta University and Amol Ratnakar Suryawanshi (Institute of Life Sciences, Bhubaneswar).The study has been published in the journal — ‘Scientific Reports’.
Human immuno-deficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals already suffering from depression are at an increased risk of experiencing a heart attack than those without the mental health condition, finds a study.The findings showed that HIV-infected patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) – a mood disorder causing a persistent feeling of sadness and loss of interest – had a 30 per cent greater risk of having an acute myocardial infarction (AMI) or heart attack. With the advent of highly effective antiretroviral therapy and improved survival, people with HIV-infection are living longer. However, they are now at an increased risk of cardiovascular diseases (CVD). Also Read – Add new books to your shelfThis elevation in heart attack risk decreased by 25 per cent after further adjustment for other variables, such as hepatitis C infection, kidney disease, alcohol or cocaine abuse or dependence and haemoglobin levels, the study said.“Our findings raise the possibility that similar to the general population, MDD may be independently associated with incident atherosclerotic CVD in the HIV-infected population,” said Matthew S. Freiberg of the Vanderbilt University School in the US. Also Read – Over 2 hours screen time daily will make your kids impulsiveThere is an urgent need to identify novel risk factors and primary prevention approaches for CVD in HIV, the researchers concluded in the paper published online by JAMA Cardiology. For the study, the team included 26,144 HIV-infected veterans without heart disease at baseline (1998-2003) participating in the US Department of Veterans Affairs ‘Veterans Aging Cohort Study’ from April 2003 through December 2009.
Kolkata: Veteran Bengali theatre personality Biplab Ketan Chakraborty died after prolonged illness early Friday. Chakraborty, who was suffering from liver diseases for a long time, died at his Dhakuria residence in South Kolkata at around 4 am, his family said. He was 72 and is survived by dancer wife Dipali Chakraborty and actress daughters Sudipta Chakraborty, Bidipta Chakraborty and dancer Bidisha Chakraborty. Earlier, he was treated in a private hospital. Also Read – Rain batters Kolkata, cripples normal life A prominent face in group theatre movement, Chakraborty had been involved with the ‘Chetana’ theatre group from the 70s till early 90s and essayed a pivotal role in ‘Marich Sangbad’, a popular production in Bengali theatre. Later he founded ‘Theatrewala’ group which had staged a widely acclaimed production ‘Kancher Dewal’. He was a popular face too on small screen earning acclaim in mega-serials like ‘Janmabhoomi.’ Chakraborty had also acted in Bengali films ‘Chander Bari’ and ‘Bhalobasar Anek Naam’.
Kolkata: Forensic experts have pointed out a short circuit in electrical equipment inside the fashion designing institute as the probable reason behind the fire that gutted an office in the multi-storeyed building situated on the 4th Floor of 60 A, Chowringhee Road near Exide Crossing on Friday morning. A portion of the roof of the building caved in due to the fire.”Prima facie, it appears that electrical short circuit has caused the fire. There were many electrical gadgets including computers inside the office of the institute. We have collected some samples and we will examine them for conclusive evidence,” said Wasim Raja, senior scientist of state forensic institute. Also Read – Rs 13,000 crore investment to provide 2 lakh jobs: MamataA senior forensic official present during the inspection said that it was difficult to collect samples as the debris of the collapsed roof is lying here and there in a precarious condition. Officials of the building department of the Kolkata Municipal Corporation inspected the site and labourers were roped in to clear the debris. “The process of clearing the debris is time-consuming. The labourers who are doing the work have to remain very careful as the building is very old and is prone to further damage. Our aim is to ensure that normal activities in the building resume as quickly as possible,” said local councillor Ashim Basu. Also Read – Lightning kills 8, injures 16 in stateThe state Fire and Emergency Services department on Saturday sent a notice to the owner of the building seeking a report on what measures he had put in place in terms of fire-fighting preparedness. Dipak Mukherjee, managing director of Mookherjee Estates Private Limited, a realty company, owns the building. Residents of two apartments in the building have shifted elsewhere and will return only after CESC restores the electric connection and KMC restores the water supply line that has been damaged. Meanwhile, a fire was reported from a mobile harbour crane at Haldia Dock at around 8.30 on Saturday morning. It soon spread to the 13 number berth. However, 10 fire tenders rushed to the spot and prevented the flames from spreading further.