Speaker Chambers said he refers the US dollars to be the single currency regime for the Liberian commerce and trade. The Speaker of the House of Representatives of the 54th Legislature Bhofal Chambers has suggested that the country should move towards a single currency regime, blaming the two currencies for “disastrous growth levels and stubbornly high and bad economy.”Dr. Chambers is recommending the removal of the Liberian dollar and the adaptation of the United States dollar as Liberia’s “single currency.”He informed journalists on Friday in his Capitol Building office on Capitol Hill, in Monrovia, of why he prefers the “permissibility of the US dollar to be the single currency regime for the Liberian commerce and trade amid the excruciating challenges the economy is faced with.”Chambers said monetary control in the Liberian economy is seriously challenged by the lose availability of the two Liberian currencies in multiple styles and values of denominations.He bitterly accused former President Ellen Johnson-Sirleaf during the end of her tenure of creating “an economic gulag,” which is related to a soviet style economic and militarily fashioned scenario that compel compliance on economic activities.According to research, the word “Gulag” is an acronym for the Main Administration of Corrective Labor Camps and Colonies that the Soviet prison system started as a means of isolating “counter-revolutionary elements.” But with the beginning of the Five Year Plan it became a form of economic colonization… But Chambers said President Sirleaf Administration printed the Liberian dollar in huge quantities, which have now flooded the economy and are chasing the few United States dollars coming into the country’s commerce and trade corridors.He said members of the 53rd Legislature and other economic partners warned the President at the time not to print new bank notes, “but she did not listen, thus contributing seriously to the present condition of the Liberia’s economic woes.”Another indicator the Speaker proffered is the low security features on the new banknotes printed by Ellen’s regime, which have given rise to the “wanton counterfeiting of the Liberian dollar by unscrupulous individuals.”Dr. Chambers, however, said he is cognizant of Liberia’s balance of trade deficit, but said the country’s exports and imports imbalances cannot be singularly responsible for the current economic debacle.“It would be expedient if this government withdraw the multiple local currencies from circulation, adapts the United States dollars and subsequently introduce a highly sophisticated and secured feature prone currency,” Speaker Chambers said.“Until some radical decisions are made to curb the economic situation in the country, like adapting a single currency, the woes may deepen,” he added.He however assured Liberians that the economic issues the country is faced with will be overcome by the Weah Administration as government is now finding a lasting solution to the situation.“The state of the country is strong and secured, and I wish the Liberian people a happy and memorable observance of the 171st Independence Day come July 26,” he said.LIBAIt can be recalled that as part of propositions to amend the Constitution with the adaptation of US dollar as a single currency, the Liberia Business Association (LIBA) rejected the proposition for the eradication of dual currency in Liberia, arguing that the country does not have the productive capacity to institute a single currency regime.LIBA said the international financial system would not have confidence in the country’s single currency, owing to the country’s low economic output, coming from conflict and being characterized by mismanagement of its economy over the decades.The then secretary general of LIBA, Ms. Leelai M. Kpukuyou, recently gave her expert opinion to lawmakers in Ganta, Nimba County, during a five-day retreat on the Proposed Amendments to the 1986 Constitution of Liberia.Ms. Kpukuyou said though timing is important, LIBA believes that the House of Representatives should delay moving toward a single currency in the immediate future until productive capacities are greatly improved.“Until we add value to our own currency through Liberian businesses, we cannot have a single currency,” Ms. Kpukuyou said. “We need to take our economy from the hands of foreigners, formalize the informal business sector, then we are ready for a single currency,” she noted.She pointed out that recent statistics from the Central Bank of Liberia (CBL) indicate that more than 70 percent of broad money (M1 and M2) is denominated in US dollars.“Accordingly, the use of the dual currency regime has been a blessing for Liberia’s economic recovery,” Ms. Kpukuyou said.“While Liberia has officially sanctioned the use of the United States dollar as legal tender, it is not the only country in the world with high dollarization. Other countries, such as Ecuador, El Salvador, Panama and Eastern Timor have higher proportions of foreign currency deposits to broad money,” she recalled.The strength of any country’s currency depends on productivity for local consumption and for export, which will allow the country to maintain a considerable balance, according to Kpukuyou.Liberian DollarIn August 2017, the House of Representatives passed a law ensuring that all monetary transactions in the country are done in Liberian dollar. This means all transactions, including purchases, sales and related business deals in the country will be done by use of the country’s local currency.Liberia is currently a dual currency country, with the US dollar being secondary. But the US dollar has dominated the market, being the most demanded currency for purchases and payments, even at government entities.Share this:Click to share on Twitter (Opens in new window)Click to share on Facebook (Opens in new window)
WHITTIER – A water company will be allowed to demolish three historic buildings – all of which date back more than 70 years. The City Council late Tuesday voted 3-2 to overrule a Historic Resources Commission ruling that California Domestic Water Co. be required to save its 1934 office, 1932 pump house and 1921 single-family residence from demolition. The company wants to build a restaurant and an office building on its site on the north side of Whittier Boulevard across from the Whittwood Town Center. “We need to have a balance between historic preservation and economic development,” said Councilman Joe Vinatieri, who was part of the majority. “This project will bring in substantial sales tax dollars as well as property tax dollars.” Vinatieri’s motion did require the company to make an effort to save the single-family residence by finding another place for it on the property or moving it to another location in East Whittier. He said he didn’t believe the office was historic because it had been changed and the pump house couldn’t be severed from the reservoir, which is being dismantled. Vinatieri was joined by Councilmen Greg Nordbak and Cathy Warner in the vote. They were opposed by Councilman Bob Henderson and Mayor Owen Newcomer, who wanted the three buildings to be preserved. Newcomer said he believes all three buildings meet the city code requiring them to be preserved. “They either have been representative of the period, have a unique architectural style or have had historic events tied to the properties,” he said. “The office building is key to me. It’s the most prominent.” Henderson asked for the issue to be postponed to give California Domestic more time to find a way to re-use these buildings as part of some kind of development. “California Domestic has been a very responsible member of this community,” he said. “I think if they would try to get together with a program that would provide them some measure of historical preservation in the long run it would serve them well.” Nordbak said he saw no problem with what California Domestic Water Co. wants to do. “If we get a quality restaurant, help balance our budget and put more police on the street, I’ll sleep very well tonight,” he said. But Henderson questioned how much money the city would get from another restaurant. “I’d feel a lot better about the economic worth of this restaurant coming in if it wasn’t necessary for the City Council to subsidize the project,” Henderson said. Henderson said the water company originally had wanted to lease the property to an In-N-Out Burger restaurant, but are now looking at an Italian restaurant should it get some kind of subsidy. firstname.lastname@example.org (562) 698-0955, Ext. 3022 160Want local news?Sign up for the Localist and stay informed Something went wrong. Please try again.subscribeCongratulations! You’re all set!
FORT ST. JOHN, B.C. – Buick Creek Elementary school has shut down classes while the school is under a evacuation order.In an announcement on the school district’s website, the school says they will be closed tomorrow.“Buick Creek Elementary School will be closed, Tuesday, May 17, 2016 due to a wildfire related Evacuation Order from the Peace River Regional District.”- Advertisement -Dave Sloan, A superintendent with School District 60, says the school wants to ensure firefighters have complete access to their jobs.“The decision to close Buick Elementary has been taken in response to the evacuation order as posted by the PRRD. The school will remain closed while the evacuation order is in place in order to facilitate staff and student safety and to ensure emergency responders and fire fighters have no one in their way”.The school was closed Monday due to a Non-Instructional Day.Advertisement
With Daniel Sturridge ruled out for six weeks with a thigh injury, Liverpool’s striker woes have become even worse.Mario Balotelli looks incapable of showing the form which made him one of the hottest prospects in world football, while fellow forwards Rickie Lambert and Fabio Borini are yet to score this campaign in any competition.Manager Brendan Rodgers will now have to have a long think about his options in January but if he does want a new signing there are plenty of strikers out there on the market should he wish to land himself a player who can fire them up the Premier League.So who could the Reds sign in the coming weeks? talkSPORT takes a look…Who would you like Liverpool to sign? Comment below! 6. Gonzalo Higuain on his way out of Napoli… to Anfield? Click the arrow to see more super strikers Liverpool should look at splashing the cash on to save their season! – Liverpool need a goal scorer and they need one fast. With Daniel Sturridge too injury prone and Luis Suarez long gone, the goals have dried up with serious consequences for Brendan Rodgers. In the summer Liverpool took calculated gambles on Mario Balotelli and Rickie Lambert, and now they are paying the price. The lesson should be learned: if at all possible, buy a top quality striker, proven consistently at the highest level. Easier said than done, but the Reds have been linked with a big money move for Higuain, who is said to be unsettled in Italy, amid reports Napoli don’t believe they can keep him beyond this season. Last year he netted 17 times in Serie A last term as well as four goals in five Champions League matches, with eight goals in 15 matches this campaign. The Argentine striker will apparently cost £30m, but for a player of his quality, then that’s worth it, right? 6 6 3. Seydou Doumbia (CSKA Moscow) – proven Champions League class – Click the arrow to see a player Liverpool could target who is regularly banging in the goals – Vanquisher of Manchester City, Ivorian striker Doumbia has been consistent goal scorer for CSKA Moscow since joining from Young Boys and has a stack of individual honours recognising his prowess in front of goal too. The player worth between £15-25million, which would represent great value considering the price paid for the lacklustre Mario Balotelli. 1. Could Marseille’s Andre-Pierre Gignac – 10 goals in 13 games so far this season – With his contract set to finish at the end of the season, there are plenty of clubs sniffing around prolific Frenchman Gignac. Ten strikes in 13 games so far this season means the 28-year-old is looking at his most prolific campaign for Marseille. At 28, Brendan Rodgers may want a younger player considering he has already brought in the experience of Rickie Lambert, but his relatively cheap price tag in January, or a free transfer next summer, could tempt the Reds to make a move now. 6 6 2. Lyon’s Alexandre Lacazzette – 11 goals in just 13 games – Click the arrow to see a possible target who’s already bagged 10 goals this season – A regular goal-getter in France over the last four seasons, Lacazzette is currently in scintillating form. The 23-year-old, who has represented Les Bleus at every level, has managed 11 strikes in just 13 appearances. A new deal signed in September was meant to tie him to Lyon until 2018 but with more excellent displays it may only mean the Ligue 1 side get more money when they sell the talented striker. 6 4. Here’s why Chelsea could be persuaded to sell Andre Schurrle – then click the arrow to see a Champions League talent who could light up Anfield – Liverpool really could sign Schurrle. The proof? Juan Mata’s move to Manchester United. A few years ago the Blues would not have considered selling a top class talent to a potential Premier League rival, but times have changed and the club will consider any deal that could make them a fat profit, in light of Financial Fair Play. Mata was sold for big money when Mourinho decided that he was surplus to requirements and calculated that United weren’t a threat. Likewise, World Cup winner Schurrle is seemingly in danger of falling out of favour with the Portuguese, while Chelsea are well ahead of the Reds in the league. Liverpool would need to break the bank, but they would land a forward who scored three goals and bagged an assist in just 244 minutes of World Cup action last summer, and possesses the dynamism that Rodgers loves in his attackers. 5. Porto’s Jackson Martinez – 53 goals in 70 Portuguese league games – Click the arrow to see another top talent Liverpool should consider breaking the bank for! – The Colombian strike star has been in sensational form in the Primeira Liga over the last three seasons, scoring 53 times in just 70 appearances. His natural ability in front of goal is clear to see with him also scoring ten times in 35 matches at international level. His price tag is certainly high at £30million but with Liverpools current issues with finding the back of the net they need a proven goal getter. 6
Crystal Palace defender Scott Dann has told talkSPORT he has not given up hope of winning an England call-up.The centre-back has been in impressive from for the Eagles ever since his arrival at Selhurst Park from Blackburn in January 2014.International recognition has so far eluded the 27-year-old, but he believes he could still earn a chance under Roy Hodgson if he continues to star for Palace.“I’m like anyone else, I would love to play for my country,” he said, speaking to Adrian Durham and Darren Gough on Drivetime.“The only way you get to play for your country is if you are playing well week in, week out for your team and that is what I’ll continue to do. And I will try to keep on improving.“If the honours come in the future, then I will obviously be very happy.“There are a lot of great players in the Premier League but you can only just keep on playing well and it’s down to the England manager who he chooses. You can’t do any more than try your best.”
WHITTIER – A mobile health services unit that has visited area senior centers since 1998 has taken a detour. Presbyterian Intercommunity Hospital’s Care Force One program, which sponsored free health screenings for seniors locally, has refocused its services to target area schools and children, officials said Monday. “\ seem to have the greatest need in this area,” said Nancy Whyte, manager of community health at the Whittier hospital. “It just keeps coming up that they don’t have access to health care, and they have no physicians, no insurance. This is our way to be able to meet that need,” she added. For the past seven years, Care Force One operators have stationed the traveling health clinic outside of senior centers to offer various walk-in screenings. The services included high blood pressure, glucose and diabetes assessments, among other evaluations. The program drew about 70 visitors a month at some locations. Senior center officials said Monday they have worked to adapt now that the Care Force One unit no longer visits the centers. Ruri Pierre, community services supervisor for the Whittier senior center, said she is working to maintain free screenings for local seniors. She has been able to duplicate some Care Force One programs and recruited associates from other health organizations to offer the services at the Walnut Street center, Pierre said. “I haven’t had anyone come to me and say that they miss the program,” she added. Visitors to the Pico Rivera Senior Center have also adjusted to the transition, according to Lizet Olmos, a coordinator at the site. Olmos said her staff learned of Care Force One’s redirection with sufficient time to line up their own health services for local seniors. “It makes sense because there are individuals here (at the senior center) they are targeting that do have insurance and do have transportation,” Olmos said. According to Whyte, the change in focus from seniors to low-income children will allow hospital officials to expand from preventive health care to doing some primary care. Care Force One officials will now offer basic medical services – such as treating pink eye, for example – to preschool through middle school students. “Those are things that we couldn’t do before,” Whyte said, adding Care Force One will also offer free immunizations and health screenings. Under the revamped program, about 22 schools in four school districts will be served by Care Force One. Those districts include Whittier City School District, South Whittier School District and the Los Nietos School District, along with the “Plaza de la Raza” Head Start program, Whyte said. El Rancho Adult School will also receive Care Force One services. Intercommunity spends an estimated $200,000 annually to operate and maintain Care Force One, Whyte said. email@example.com (562) 698-0955, Ext. 3024 AD Quality Auto 360p 720p 1080p Top articles1/5READ MORE‘Mame,’ ‘Hello, Dolly!’ composer Jerry Herman dies at 88160Want local news?Sign up for the Localist and stay informed Something went wrong. Please try again.subscribeCongratulations! You’re all set!
Share Facebook Twitter Google + LinkedIn Pinterest President Donald Trump announced in August that the U.S. and Mexico have reached a deal on terms to replace the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), putting pressure on Canada to reach agreement with the two nations jointly or through separate bilateral agreements.“The agreement specifically addresses agricultural biotechnology to keep up with 21st Century innovations. And we mutually pledge to work together with Mexico to reduce trade-distorting policies, increase transparency, and ensure non-discriminatory treatment in grading of agricultural products,” said Sonny Perdue, USDA Secretary. “This is nothing short of a great victory for farmers and ranchers, because locking in our access to Mexican markets is critical to supporting farm income and strengthening rural communities. Mexico has historically been a great customer and partner and we are happy to have this resolved for our agricultural producers.“We now hope that Canada will see the need to settle all of the outstanding issues between our two nations as well, and restore us to a true North American Free Trade Agreement.”The news of the progress was well received by the agricultural community.“This is the kind of trade news we have been waiting for. In a time when the U.S. economy is booming our farmers have been left behind. Open markets and good trade agreements will give American agriculture the opportunity to be a part of this booming economy. So we encourage the Administration to keep moving forward with Canada to address their anticompetitive milk pricing provisions. We need negotiators to convince Canadian officials that they, too, will benefit from a revised treaty. We are hopeful that the value of a continued and improved NAFTA for all will bring everyone back to the negotiating table,” said Zippy Duvall, president of the American Farm Bureau Federation. “Based on the gains both sides have seen with NAFTA, we expect this new ‘U.S.-Mexico Preliminary Agreement in Principle’ to build on that success for our farmers and ranchers. No trade deal is perfect, however. There is room for improvement, especially in provisions that affect U.S. fruit and vegetable growers, and we will continue to call for a resolution to those issues and a final deal that works for all of agriculture.”The National Farmers Union (NFU) also supports the administration’s stated intent to renegotiate NAFTA and fix the systemic issues that disadvantage family farmers and rural communities. NFU believes the nation’s trade deficit and lost sovereignty are a result of a “free trade” agreement framework that began with NAFTA in 1994 and has replicated in U.S. trade deals over the past 25 years.“Today’s movement on NAFTA renegotiations is a positive step towards putting in place a trade deal that rewrites the current rules of international trade to put family farmers and ranchers on an even playing field with multinational corporations,” said Rob Larew, NFU Senior Vice President of Public Policy and Communications. “While this is an important step, there is still much work to be done on the part of U.S. negotiators to secure balanced trade and renewed sovereignty for American agriculture. Farmers Union urges the administration to work tactfully with our Mexican and Canadian trading partners to institute a new, fair trade NAFTA.”
123456789101112<> Location:Zuid-Holland, NetherlandsN 51° 54.262 E 004° 53.637 This geocache will make you want to unwind and rest a while. Nestled in the quaint village of Goudriaan, Netherlands, the cache lives in a tiny building near acres of exquisite Dutch countryside. Difficulty:1.5Terrain:1.5 The home may be micro, but the cache owner’s heart is BIG, and they’ve pulled out all the stops to make sure your visit to the cache is a pleasant one. Lamps, curtains, tables, and an assortment of decorations make the abode feel like an extension of the cache owner’s own home. A stunning collection of tea cups adorn the walls of the interior, giving it a whimsical atmosphere. Bee-themed decorations placed tastefully throughout the establishment remind you to take a breath, unwind, and “bee” happy. How has geocaching helped you relax? Continue to explore some of the most amazing geocaches around the world.Check out all of the Geocaches of the Week on the Geocaching blog. If you would like to nominate a Geocache of the Week, fill out this form.Share with your Friends:More TraditionalGC3G81Yby team-Koksi SharePrint RelatedGBC 2 – Name that Tune — Geocache of the WeekAugust 15, 2018In “Community”Östanbyn — Geocache of the WeekSeptember 7, 2017In “Geocache of the Week”The Once and Future Geocacher — Excalibur (GC2VQ88) — Geocache of the WeekSeptember 4, 2013In “Community”
Lets take a look at how to capture amazing footage in everyday situations with these insights from professional video producer Mathieu Provost.As filmmakers and video producers we’re often forced to shoot in less-than-ideal situations. It’s not uncommon to have to shoot in an ugly office, echo-filled room, or dark interior. But good filmmakers know how to bring out the best in every situations. Through creative camera work and a fundamental knowledge of composition you can get extraordinary shots in everyday locations.One filmmaker with a keen eye for finding beauty in everyday situations is Mathieu Provost. The Canadian filmmaker uses a combination of everyday filmmaking tools to draw out hidden beauty in seemingly everyday locations. I recently came across Mathieu’s aerial reel on Vimeo and was instantly blown away by the footage quality.In fact, one of the most impressive things about the work that Mathieu is doing is the fact that it is seemingly everyday work, yet the result is amazingly striking footage. His setups aren’t complex or expensive. I asked Mathieu a few questions about his work and he was kind enough to share his insights with us.Q&A with Mathieu ProvostWhat tools do you use to capture your amazing footage?On a shoot I always bring two cameras, different lenses, and, of course, the drone. I have the regular phantom made by DJI, but most of the time I prefer the DJI Inspire 1. More powerful, more stable, and more variety of lenses as well. On the ground, I always have my Sony a7RII with the 70-200 and 24-105. My colleague also uses the Canon lens 11-24 for really wide and cool shots on the ground with glide cam. And, of course, slider and tripod!How much of your cinematography is planned out before the day of the shoot? Before each shooting (ground and in flight) I really like to go on Google Maps to check the exact location of the shoot and the environment around. That will help me to know a few things about the area (permit needed, obstacles, etc.) Also, if we can have access to the location, I will go first by myself and take pictures of the environment, beauty shot, sun position, and everything related to the shoot. I also try to find information on the web about the location, the stories… Once I’m back home, the movies start playing in my head… Visualization for me is the key. I also produce a production plan/document with the different kind of footage I imagined, and information that I think is important on the location etc. Once we are there, it’s easier to follow this kind of bible to make sure that we covered every aspect. We are also really sensible for each little intuitive moment that can happen on a set. Sometimes, theses moments are keepers for sure.You’re exceptionally good at finding hidden beauty in everyday moments. How can other filmmakers develop an eye for shooting great shots in everyday situations?Life is full of small moments that we can immortalize with our camera. I think that each person has their own way to see the world and be amazed by little things. That’s how the images will show on a film. I had this gift in my life to find everything nice around me. I always look everywhere in case that I found the perfect amount of light, the perfect amount of wind, etc… For me, each situation, each moment, each flower, each river deserves to be on film with their beauty. The only thing I can say is just look around you. I don’t think we can learn how to be sensible for things. Challenge yourself by creating a nice video with small little things around you. Do you have any tips for someone looking to shoot awesome drone footage?The more you shoot, the more comfortable you will be when flying your drone. You need to know your drone by heart. You need to know your limit and your drone’s limit as well. Play with the sunset and sunrise, play with trees, with textures, rivers, etc… And the most important, fly your drone smoothly and slowly on any shots. For me, smooth and slow is the key… Bring your viewers somewhere else.If they take time to watch your video, give them at least a free ride, a free flight with emotions. Take your time to shoot. You never know if you will have the chance to come back where you are and in the same light situation etc. Sometimes I use the entire battery lifetime on filming only one shot! So almost 20 minutes! I want to have the perfect shot for me, for my eyes, for the vision I have at that perfect moment. Also, try to film different points of view to do variety into your shot. I also really like to include ground shots with drone shots.How do you determine your color palette when grading?I usually don’t use a lot of color correction in post. I really like natural colors and clean images. I play a lot with the natural effect of light, golden hour, etc. Contrast and saturation sometimes, but most of my video doesn’t have any color correction… Or almost.What role does music play in telling your videos story?For me, the most important thing in cinema is the choice of the music. This will drive all your images, the feeling you want to demonstrate, and, of course, the sensibility. Sometimes I can spend hours searching for music. All that time spent will make the difference at the end. Before filming, I was a music composer for TV commercials, short films, and other commercial stuff.In my time off, I was always playing with World War footage. I was trying to reproduce different kinds of music on the same footage (classical and heavy metal) to show people the important place that music can have in a film. When you have a chance, try this test at home. You will find that combining World War footage and classical music is almost artistic.What resources/websites/courses have helped you the most as a filmmaker?Our X generation is really lucky to have all the internet options/access to learn from everywhere and from everybody in the world. I really take advantage of this every time I can. I think that everybody needs to learn from different tutorials, at least the basic rules of film and/or photo. YouTube and Vimeo have been great friends for me, of course!When we want to buy new equipment, we check all reviews before to make sure we have the best possible gear for our need, etc. I also spent a lot of time with really good cinematographers that share the same vision that I have… I learned bags of information with these people, for sure. Don’t be shy about asking questions. When you have your answer, work on it, try to find information on it, try different ways to practice, etc. Practice makes perfect, there is no doubt! This sentence will help you to understand more the vision I have about filmmaking… I read this quote a few years ago: “Work until your idols become your rivals.”What is the most important lesson you’ve learned as a filmmaker?All filmmakers have their own way to learn. For me, learning from people, experience, and technique and, of course, practice was the key. Be curious. If you have questions, ask people or go find by yourself what you looking for on YouTube, Vimeo or other platform available to you. Also, be patient… There are thousands of filmmakers all around the world who produce fantastic footage…But one day, somebody will knock at your door to tell you that your work is also fantastic… That was my case a few days ago with the PremiumBeat team. So everything is possible. Be respectful for the talent you have in life… This is a gift. You need to feed it with passion.Where can people go if they want see more of your work?Subscribe to our Vimeo and YouTube, follow us on Twitter and Facebook channel. We’d be happy to answer any questions you have! Have any questions for Mathieu? Share in the comments below.
Climate change poses little threat of causing greenhouse gases to gush from the Arctic or the Gulf Stream to slosh to a stop, at least in this century, concludes a report released today by a committee of the National Research Council (NRC). But the uncertainties associated with passing tipping points in the climate system are dangerously large, the NRC committee finds. To remedy that, the committee recommends the creation of an early warning system to alert policymakers to new threats of abrupt change and, of course, further research to reduce those uncertainties. “The time is here to be serious about the threat of tipping points,” the report concludes, “so as to better anticipate and prepare ourselves for the inevitable surprises.”NRC foresees some of those surprises coming from some unconventional quarters. In addition to problems created by sudden climate changes over a few decades or even a few years, the committee points to abruptly developing problems created by a steadily changing climate. Rising sea level could suddenly begin to breach sea walls, for example, and thawing permafrost could cause the sudden collapse of buildings, roads, or pipelines.Some sudden impacts of climate change are already under way, the report notes. Arctic warming has caused a rapid decline in sea ice cover during the past decade that could seriously affect everything from Arctic ecosystems to shipping and oil drilling. And global warming is so rapid—as fast as any warming in the past 65 million years—that species already under pressure from habitat loss and overexploitation are at greater risk of extinction.Sign up for our daily newsletterGet more great content like this delivered right to you!Country *AfghanistanAland IslandsAlbaniaAlgeriaAndorraAngolaAnguillaAntarcticaAntigua and BarbudaArgentinaArmeniaArubaAustraliaAustriaAzerbaijanBahamasBahrainBangladeshBarbadosBelarusBelgiumBelizeBeninBermudaBhutanBolivia, Plurinational State ofBonaire, Sint Eustatius and SabaBosnia and HerzegovinaBotswanaBouvet IslandBrazilBritish Indian Ocean TerritoryBrunei DarussalamBulgariaBurkina FasoBurundiCambodiaCameroonCanadaCape VerdeCayman IslandsCentral African RepublicChadChileChinaChristmas IslandCocos (Keeling) IslandsColombiaComorosCongoCongo, The Democratic Republic of theCook IslandsCosta RicaCote D’IvoireCroatiaCubaCuraçaoCyprusCzech RepublicDenmarkDjiboutiDominicaDominican RepublicEcuadorEgyptEl SalvadorEquatorial GuineaEritreaEstoniaEthiopiaFalkland Islands (Malvinas)Faroe IslandsFijiFinlandFranceFrench GuianaFrench PolynesiaFrench Southern TerritoriesGabonGambiaGeorgiaGermanyGhanaGibraltarGreeceGreenlandGrenadaGuadeloupeGuatemalaGuernseyGuineaGuinea-BissauGuyanaHaitiHeard Island and Mcdonald IslandsHoly See (Vatican City State)HondurasHong KongHungaryIcelandIndiaIndonesiaIran, Islamic Republic ofIraqIrelandIsle of ManIsraelItalyJamaicaJapanJerseyJordanKazakhstanKenyaKiribatiKorea, Democratic People’s Republic ofKorea, Republic ofKuwaitKyrgyzstanLao People’s Democratic RepublicLatviaLebanonLesothoLiberiaLibyan Arab JamahiriyaLiechtensteinLithuaniaLuxembourgMacaoMacedonia, The Former Yugoslav Republic ofMadagascarMalawiMalaysiaMaldivesMaliMaltaMartiniqueMauritaniaMauritiusMayotteMexicoMoldova, Republic ofMonacoMongoliaMontenegroMontserratMoroccoMozambiqueMyanmarNamibiaNauruNepalNetherlandsNew CaledoniaNew ZealandNicaraguaNigerNigeriaNiueNorfolk IslandNorwayOmanPakistanPalestinianPanamaPapua New GuineaParaguayPeruPhilippinesPitcairnPolandPortugalQatarReunionRomaniaRussian FederationRWANDASaint Barthélemy Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da CunhaSaint Kitts and NevisSaint LuciaSaint Martin (French part)Saint Pierre and MiquelonSaint Vincent and the GrenadinesSamoaSan MarinoSao Tome and PrincipeSaudi ArabiaSenegalSerbiaSeychellesSierra LeoneSingaporeSint Maarten (Dutch part)SlovakiaSloveniaSolomon IslandsSomaliaSouth AfricaSouth Georgia and the South Sandwich IslandsSouth SudanSpainSri LankaSudanSurinameSvalbard and Jan MayenSwazilandSwedenSwitzerlandSyrian Arab RepublicTaiwanTajikistanTanzania, United Republic ofThailandTimor-LesteTogoTokelauTongaTrinidad and TobagoTunisiaTurkeyTurkmenistanTurks and Caicos IslandsTuvaluUgandaUkraineUnited Arab EmiratesUnited KingdomUnited StatesUruguayUzbekistanVanuatuVenezuela, Bolivarian Republic ofVietnamVirgin Islands, BritishWallis and FutunaWestern SaharaYemenZambiaZimbabweI also wish to receive emails from AAAS/Science and Science advertisers, including information on products, services and special offers which may include but are not limited to news, careers information & upcoming events.Required fields are included by an asterisk(*)To better anticipate the next sudden change, the committee recommends the creation of an early warning system and research to better understand the possibilities. “Right now we don’t know what many of these thresholds are,” said committee Chair James White of the University of Colorado, Boulder, in a statement. “But with better information, we will be able to anticipate some major changes before they occur and help reduce the potential consequences.”The committee acknowledges that its ambitions for enhanced monitoring, modeling, and synthesis of the knowledge gained would come with a significant price tag. The monitoring alone “in an era of budget cuts is an area of concern,” according to the report. Although an early warning system would eventually become a large program, the committee concedes, it “might better be started through the coordination, integration, and expansion of existing and planned smaller programs.”